Volume 3 Issue 1
The Influence of Muscular Strength Exertion on Intermittent Running Endurance Capacity among Ball Game Players
Koji Akashi*, Mmoru Tanaka, Hiraoki Tanaka, Yasuki Higaki
This study aimed to examine the influence of muscular strength exertion and changes of direction upon intermittent running endurance capacity, and thereby clarify the correlation between total running distance covered and physical strength characteristics. We subjected 15 university student handball players to 20-meter shuttles and measured their intermittent endurance capacity. We additionally measured their intermittent endurance capacity when performing the shuttles with changes of direction and while exerting muscular strength (carrying 30 kilograms for 5 meters) during the recovery period.
Use of Appearance and Performance-enhancing Drugs and Supplements among University Students in Kuwait
Hussein Al-Shati, Manar AL-Saqabi, Reem Al-Jabri, Mohammed Saleh, Ahmed Al-Arouj, Abdulaziz Abdullah, Manal Bouhaimed*
Use of appearance and performance-enhancing drugs and supplements (APEDS) has increased among young persons. We surveyed undergraduates in Kuwait to determine prevalence and factors associated with use. We surveyed 2002 students from private and public campuses. A pre-tested self-administered questionnaire assessed use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), growth hormone, protein powders, amino acids, fat burners, and laxatives/diuretics. We evaluated associations between APEDS use and sociodemographic, health, and health behavioral variables.